Letter value: f
Lore: This is the principle of mobile power-within nature, within the self, and within society. Fehu is a power that flows outward like fire from its course and must be circulatedin order to be beneficial.
Magick: Fehu symbolizes primal, uncontrolled Fire. Its energy is that of the ‘big bang’ and lightning strikes in the wilderness. It is power of generation at its most basic level. Its energies are totally wild and very useful for magick involving swift, radical changes. Use to hasten affairs to their next stage, increase monetary wealth, protect valuables, or send your energy or the energy of the runes out into the formative spheres.
Positive Meaning: Possessions won or earned, earned income, luck. Abundance, financial strength in the present or near future. Sign of hope and plenty, success and happiness. Social success. Energy, foresight, fertility, creation/destruction (becoming).
Reversed or Merkstave: Loss of personal property, esteem, or something that you put in effort to keep. It indicates some sort of failure. Greed, burnout, atrophy, discord. Cowardice, stupidity, dullness, poverty, slavery, bondage.


Letter value: u, v
Lore: Aurochs were a large bovine species now extinct. To the ancient Germanic people aurochs not only represented great physical strength, but also health, as they were used as major food source. The symbol of the auroch, represented by the Uruz rune has come to mean health and strength. It can also mean courage, as there was great courage involved in the hunting of such mighty beasts.
Magick: The rune of changes, Uruz is the shaping power that brings about manifestation. Use it to give sluggish circumstances a prod. A rune of vitality and strength, it is also useful in healing magick, especially when the patient is weak and could use some extra strength. Use to draw new situations into your life, to initiate new circumstances purely by a force of will, or for healing and maintenance of good physical health.
Positive Meaning: Physical strength and speed, untamed potential. A time of great energy and health. Freedom, energy, action, courage, strength, tenacity, understanding, wisdom. Sudden or unexpected changes (usually for the better). Sexual desire, masculine potency. The shaping of power and pattern, formulation of the self.
Reversed or Merkstave: Weakness, obsession, misdirected force, and domination by others. Sickness, inconsistency, ignorance. Lust, brutality, rashness, callousness, violence.


Letter value: Th
Lore: Thurisaz is chaos, the kind of chaos that only a menacing giant can bring. It is raw unbridled power. It is so primal that it lies beneath the surface of and issue, at the base. This idea can even apply to psyche, where thurisaz can often time refer to chaotic and base, and even evil attributes in the human subconscious.
Magick: Thurisaz is the directed cosmic power of defense. It symbolizes Mjollnir, the Hammer of Thor. It is pure will untempered by self-consciousness. It is a form of applied power that can be projected. Use it when a little something extra is needed to get things off the ground. Use for new beginnings, when you need luck or when circumstances are beyond your control, for protection or defense, for neutralizing enemies or opposition, or to push the issue in love magick.
Positive Meaning: Reactive force, directed force of destruction and defense, conflict. Instinctual will, vital eroticism, regenerative catalyst. A tendency toward change. Catharsis, purging, cleansing fire. Male sexuality, fertilization. (Thor, the Thunder god, was of Giant stock.)
Reversed or Merkstave: Danger, defenselessness, compulsion, betrayal, and dullness. Evil, malice, hatred, torment, spite, lies. A bad man or woman. Rape?


Letter value: a
Lore: Ansuz literally means “god”. But to early Germanic people, this rune had much more meaning. It was associated with the “breath of god” in this case, Odin. Odin came and breathed air into inanimate beings, which came to life and acquired consciousness. For these reasons air, the spoken word, communication, higher consciousness and Odin are all tied to this rune.
Magick: Ansuz is the rune of communications. It rules over song, poetry, examinations, interviews, and magickal incantations. It is good to use wherever communication is the issue. Use for convincing and magnetic speech, to gain wisdom, for confidence and luck with exams, or for an increase of active magickal energies.
Positive Meaning: A revealing message or insight, communication. Signals, inspiration, enthusiasm, speech, true vision, power of words and naming. Blessings, the taking of advice. Good health, harmony, truth, wisdom.
Reversed or Merkstave: Misunderstanding, delusion, and manipulation by others, boredom. Vanity and grandiloquence. (Odin is a mighty, but duplicitous god. He always has his own agenda.)


Letter value: r
Lore: Like Fehu, this is another rune whose meaning is buried in a metaphor hidden in a simile. On the first level of kenning, Raido means riding as in traveling and moving, so the rune can apply to those themes. On a deeper level of kenning, Raido refers to the wheels of a wagon, the mechanism behind which movement actually occurs. This leads us to an even deeper level of kenning for, to the early Germanic people, the wheel was a symbol by which the gods set the universe into motion, a great cosmic wheel by which all the cycles, patterns and orders of the universe move in rhythm too. Being a rune, then, of proper universal accord, Raido also represents moving in the right direction and doing what is proper and correct.
Magick: Raidho is not only a rune of travel but also rules over the cosmic laws of Right and Order. Therefore, like Jera, it is useful for legal matters, especially when you have been unjustly accused and need to bring those forces of Right to bear on the issue. Use for obtaining justice according to Right or for safe and comfortable travel
Positive Meaning: Travel, both in physical terms and those of lifestyle direction. A journey, vacation, relocation, evolution, change of place or setting. Seeing a larger perspective. Seeing the right move for you to make and deciding upon it. Personal rhythm, world rhythm, dance of life.
Reversed or Merkstave: Crisis, rigidity, stasis, injustice, and irrationality. Disruption, dislocation, demotion, delusion, possibly a death.


Letter value: c, k
Lore: The true meaning of the Kenaz rune is one of the hardest to interpret based on the fact that it has two seemingly incompatible traditional meanings. How does one find a common theme between a torch and a festering boil? Well it goes something like this. In the olden days, when a person died, his or her body was placed into a mound so that decay would rot the flesh away from the bones so that the bones could be prepared for ritual internment. As burial practices evolved, a torch was used to start a fire that was used to burn flesh from the bones. Both of these practices involve the intentional decay and destruction of one form in preparation for the intentional reconstruction of a new form. So, in a roundabout way, Kenaz is the rune of new beginnings and opportunities. On another level of kenning, this controlled use of fire for the purpose of reconstructing, became associated with reforming, and forging in general, and so became, in turn, associated with smiths. Smith craft was a valued skill, and so Kenaz came to refer to valued skills or knowledge in general. So in another roundabout way, Kenaz came to be associated with torch of knowledge
Magick: Kenaz is another rune of fire, but unlike Fehu, it is a gentle, more controlled form of fire, which gives the ability and will to create. It is the rune of the artist and craftsman and is useful when creativity is the issue or when artistic things are very important to the person for whom you are creating the runescript. It also governs the technical aspects of runemagick. It is the rune that governs passion, lust, and sexual energy as fiery, positive aspects. Use to strengthen any runescript, for healing and physical well being, for love, stability, and passion in a relationship, for fresh starts, and for protection of valuables.
Positive Meaning: Vision, revelation, knowledge, creativity, inspiration, technical ability. Vital fire of life, harnessed power, fire of transformation and regeneration. Power to create your own reality, the power of light. Open to new strength, energy, and power now. Passion, sexual love.
Reversed or Merkstave: Disease, breakup, instability, lack of creativity. Nakedness, exposure, loss of illusion and false hope.


Letter value: g
Lore: On the surface, Gebo means gift, but in actuality it more closely represents that which lead up to the gift… an exchange. With the early Germanic people, if a gift was given, remuneration in some form was expected. Without a word spoken, the recipient of a gift was entered into an agreement or contract that bound him to the gift-giver until an exchange was eventually made. On a deeper level of kenning Gebo represents binds and contracts.
Magick: Gifu is the rune of partnerships in all realms. It contains the power to integrate all the energies of two or more people in order to produce a force that is greater than the sum total of their individual parts. It is the primary rune of sex magick. It demonstrates a willingness to sacrifice. Use for love and sex magick, or for an increase in magickal powers.
Positive Meaning: Gifts, both in the sense of sacrifice and of generosity, indicating balance. All matters in relation to exchanges, including contracts, personal relationships and partnerships.
Merkstave (Gebo cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): Greed, loneliness, dependence, over-sacrifice. Obligation, toll, privation, bribery.


Letter value: v, w
Lore: The concept embodied by the Wunjo rune is that of the joy of striving for perfection, as well as the wish to achieve it. This is not an egotistical perfection, but more along the lines of striving to be perfect in terms of being good, enlightened and “god-like”. It is remotely similar to the idea of attaining Nirvana. It is a rune of completion and signifying accomplishments, and gain for that which has been wished for.
Magick: Wunjo is the rune of happily ever after. It is generally used in the final position as a signifier of success and happiness. Use for fulfillment in any area, especially love or career, or for success in travel.
Positive Meaning: Joy, comfort, and pleasure. Fellowship, harmony, prosperity. Ecstasy, glory, spiritual reward, but also the possibility of going “over the top”. If restrained, the meaning is general success and recognition of worth.
Reversed or Merkstave: Stultification, sorrow, strife, and alienation. Delirium, intoxication, possession by higher forces, impractical enthusiasm. Raging frenzy, berserker.

Letter value: h
Lore: The Hagalaz runes means “hail”. In my studies of this rune I have found very conflicting and mutually exclusive interpretations for this rune. Based on what I have come to understand about runes, especially their interaction with and relation to other runes, as well as the position in the aett that it is in, Hagalaz is not a beneficial and constructive rune. Hagalaz is the rune of the goddess Hella, the prime deity of Hel, the Germanic underworld. Similar to Thurisaz, Hagalaz can represent the uncontrolled forces in the unconscious, but those that are disruptive in nature and usually originate in the past. It has connections with the dark-side of femininity as well as with the magick of witchcraft.
Magick: The meaning of Hagall in magick is very different from its meanings in divination. In divination, Hagall represents frustrating delays but not stagnation. In magick, this rune is a rune of evolution, but it is evolution of the slow but sure type within a fixed framework. Its fixed nature promotes security and keeps negative energies from entering your space. Use for protection, where luck is needed, or to encourage a positive result within a fixed framework.
Positive Meaning: Wrath of nature, destructive, uncontrolled forces, especially the weather, or within the unconscious. Tempering, testing, trial. Controlled crisis, leading to completion, inner harmony.
Merkstave (Hagalaz cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): Natural disaster, catastrophe. Stagnation, loss of power. Pain, loss, suffering, hardship, sickness, crisis.


Letter value: n
Lore: This rune is a symbol of two sticks being rubbed together to make a fire, in this case the old Germanic “need-fire”. The need-fire would be burned during times of sickness to help banish it. The symbolism of this would be that the extra energy needed to force the bow against the stick to start the fire would lend the energy necessary to drive the sickness from those afflicted. Most of the power however came from the desperate need to have a healing take place. The idea behind nauthiz is this… if ones need is great enough, if one is backed against the wall and restricted badly enough, then nauthiz will deliver.
Magick: This rune has two aspects to it and you would do well to remember them when formulating your runescript. Nied represents need and distress, but also the release from that distress. Through utilization of this run by the will, one can change Fate via knowledge and wisdom. This rune is a very powerful rune in Icelandic love magick and represents the primal needs and desires that drive you to seek out a lover. Use for overcoming distress, achieving your goals, protection, love magick, to find a lover, or for impetus to get a relationship off the ground.
Positive Meaning: Delays, restriction. Resistance leading to strength, innovation, need-fire (self-reliance). Distress, confusion, conflict, and the power of will to overcome them. Endurance, survival, determination. A time to exercise patience. Recognition of one’s fate. Major self-initiated change. Face your fears.
Reversed or Merkstave: Constraint of freedom, distress, toil, drudgery, and laxity. Necessity, extremity, want, deprivation, starvation, need, poverty, emotional hunger.


Letter value: I
Lore: Isa is ice, immobile, immutable, ice. Unchanging and unyielding. Stubborn and completely resistant.
Magick: This rune rules the forces of inertia and entropy. It is also a symbol for the ego. Use to freeze a situation as it is, for the development of will, or for the halting of unwanted forces.
Positive Meaning: A challenge or frustration. Psychological blocks to thought or activity, including grievances. Standstill, or a time to turn inward and wait for what is to come, or to seek clarity. This rune reinforces runes around it.
Merkstave (Isa cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): Egomania, dullness, blindness, and dissipation. Treachery, illusion, deceit, betrayal, guile, stealth, ambush, plots.


Letter value: j, y
Lore: Jera, like Raido, is a rune of rhythm and movement, specifically the movement of time. Jera is the growth a progression from a little insignificant seed to a towering fruit bearing, life-sustaining tree. Similar to the tarot’s Wheel of Fortune card, but different in that Jera usually shows changes for the better. Year is growth, transition, and evolution.
Magick: Jera is the rune of harvest, of rewards arriving at their proper time. It also governs legalities of sorts and is useful in all legal matters. Use when a tangible result is expected for an outlay of money, time, or effort, to help bring events to pass, for help in legal matters, or for fertility.
Positive Meaning: The results of earlier efforts are realized. A time of peace and happiness, fruitful season. It can break through stagnancy. Hopes and expectations of peace and prosperity. The promise of success earned. Life cycle, cyclical pattern of the universe. Everything changes, in its own time.
Merkstave (Jera cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): Sudden setback, reversals. A major change, repetition, bad timing, poverty, conflict.


Letter value: ei
Lore: Eiwaz is a Yew tree, but not just any Yew. It represents, Yggdrasil THE tree of all trees in Germanic mythology. Yggdrasil is the center of the universe as well as the ultimate foundation. All other realms of existence are built upon it branches and roots. It is the spine of the universe. On another level of kenning Eiwaz is all that having a good proverbial backbone can give you. The power to stand-up for oneself, to have the courage, drive and determination to push ahead, is symbolized here.
Magick: This rune is a very powerful rune of banishing and protection, symbolizing the yew tree. Use for protection, increasing power, or removal of obstacles.
Positive Meaning: Strength, reliability, dependability, trustworthiness. Enlightenment, endurance. Defense, protection. The driving force to acquire, providing motivation and a sense of purpose. Indicates that you have set your sights on a reasonable target and can achieve your goals. An honest man who can be relied upon.
Reversed or Merkstave: Confusion, destruction, dissatisfaction, and weakness.


Letter value: p
Lore: Perthro is a rune that has been associated with games of chance. But in reality Perthro’s meaning goes deeper than games, for it expresses what all games have in common… the unknown. No one knows what the outcome a game is going to be. Perthro is secrets, that which is kept occulted from us. Secret talents and occult powers can be hinted at here.
Magick: A rune of time and change. It rules over secrets and things hidden and is also allied with karmic energies. Use for evolving your magickal ideas, when dealing with investments or speculation, for finding lost things, or to promote good mental health in healing.
Positive Meaning: Uncertain meaning, a secret matter, a mystery, hidden things and occult abilities. Initiation, knowledge of one’s destiny, knowledge of future matters, determining the future or your path. Pertaining to things feminine, feminine mysteries including female fertility, and vagina. Good lot, fellowship and joy. Evolutionary change.
Reversed or Merkstave: Addiction, stagnation, loneliness, and malaise.


Algiz, Eolh
Letter value: z
Lore: Algiz represents protection according to tradition. On another level of kenning it represents divine inspiration and aspirations. What do the two have in common? The Valkryies are that common element. Valkryries were the warrior, Amazon-like daughters of Odin. They were the choosers of the dead on battlefields and lead the dead to the afterlife. They protected the souls of those who died, as well as those who were meant to remain alive. The tie to divine aspirations come from the fact that in some Germanic customs, it was believe that a valkyrie was actually part of persons higher consciousness, the “god-like” part of our own being. These all being the case, Algiz represents both protection and the divine consciousness within each of us.
Magick: Another powerful rune of protection, Eolh was often carved into weapons for victory and safety during battle. As it’s shape is the one we stand in when we invoke the gods or draw down energy from the heavens, it is also seen as the connecting bridge between gods and men. Use for protection from enemies, protection from evil, promoting friendship, or to strengthen luck and the life force.
Positive Meaning: Protection, a shield. The protective urge to shelter oneself or others. Defense, warding off of evil, shield, and guardian. Connection with the gods, awakening, higher life. It can be used to channel energies appropriately. Follow your instincts. Keep hold of success or maintain a position won or earned.
Reversed or Merkstave: Hidden danger, consumption by divine forces, and loss of divine link. Taboo, warning, turning away, that which repels.


Letter value: s
Lore: The sun to ancient Germanic people came to represent personal power, strength of will and the conscious mind. In many respects it is similar to The Sun in the Major Arcana of the Tarot.
Magick: Sigel is the rune of the will. It is that spiritual energy which guides all true seekers. A rune of success. Use for victory, success, healing, or when strength and self-confidence are needed.
Positive Meaning: Success, goals achieved, honor. The life force, health. A time when power will be available to you for positive changes in your life, victory, health, and success. Contact between the higher self and the unconscious. Wholeness, power, elemental force, sword of flame, cleansing fire.
Merkstave (Sowilo cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): False goals, bad counsel, false success, gullibility, and loss of goals. Destruction, retribution, justice, casting down of vanity. Wrath of god.


Tir, Teiwaz
Letter value: t
Lore: Tyr is a warrior, but it is out of a sense of justice that he fights for, not for the sake of war itself. Therefore, Tyr is the god of the fight for just causes. Tiwaz’s influences extend from battles to legal matters. Honor, leadership and authority are also indicated here.
Magick: This is the great rune of victory and symbolizes kings and leaders of men. Tir is the rune of might for right and as such is valuable in a runescript when you have been unfairly denied something or have been falsely accused. It is indicative of the fighting spirit, of trial by combat and fearlessness. It is the primary masculine rune. Use for victory, whenever competition is a factor, for good health and recuperation, or to symbolize the ardent male in love matters.
Positive Meaning: Honor, justice, leadership and authority. Analysis, rationality. Knowing where one’s true strengths lie. Willingness to self-sacrifice. Victory and success in any competition or in legal matters.
Reversed or Merkstave: One’s energy and creative flow are blocked. Mental paralysis, over-analysis, over-sacrifice, injustice, imbalance. Strife, war, conflict, failure in competition. Dwindling passion, difficulties in communication, and possibly separation.


Letter value: b
Lore: Imagine the symbols and feelings the word “mother” brings to you, once you do this you will have a good idea of what Berkana means. It is protective and caring. It nurtures and guards. It is the powers of nature, of all the plants and animals. It is the earth mother. It also represents all things female, and has dominion even over female fertility and cycles. Birth, children, and family are also implied.
Magick: Beorc is the rune of the Great Mother and as such is the primary rune of fertility. It also conceals and protects and rules over all protective enclosures, such as houses or temple areas. It is very good to use in a runescript for the peace, protection, and harmony of a household. In a runescript, it represents a very feminine and nurturing female type. Use for fertility, protection, family matters, to bring ideas to fruition, or to represent a certain type of female.
Positive Meaning: Birth, general fertility, both mental and physical and personal growth, liberation. Regenerative power and light of spring, renewal, promise of new beginnings, new growth. Arousal of desire. A love affair or new birth. The prospering of an enterprise or venture.
Reversed or Merkstave: Family problems and or domestic troubles. Anxiety about someone close to you. Carelessness, abandon, loss of control. Blurring of consciousness, deceit, sterility, and stagnation.


Letter value: e
Lore: The story behind Ehwaz is that of a horse and its rider. In such a story we have partnership, cooperation, mutual dependency, as well as journeys and travel. All these themes are native to Ehwaz. It simpler cases Ehwaz usually refers to relationships of a personal level… friendships, lovers, etc. It can be considered a rune of sexuality also.
Magick: This is the rune of abrupt changes and is good for initiating bold new ventures. Use Ehwaz after the subject rune in your runescript to facilitate change. Use to bring change swiftly or ensure safe travel.
Positive Meaning: Transportation. May represent a horse, car, plane, boat or other vehicle. Movement and change for the better. Gradual development and steady progress are indicated. Harmony, teamwork, trust, loyalty. An ideal marriage or partnership. Confirms beyond doubt the meanings of the runes around it.
Reversed or Merkstave: This is not really a negative rune. A change is perhaps craved. Feeling restless or confined in a situation. Reckless haste, disharmony, mistrust, betrayal.


Letter value: m
Lore: Mannuz represents humanity, but more over, that aspect of humanity that singles us out from the other creatures of the earth, and even the gods. That aspect is our intelligence. It also represents a “super-human”, one who has achieved perfect balance between his or her intellect and intuition. From a divinatory point of view mannaz means intelligence or can refer to a specific person relevant to the reading at hand.
Magick: Mannaz is the symbol of mankind as a whole and is often used when assistance from others is needed. It also symbolizes the powers of a rational mind. Use to gain the assistance of others or to increase memory and mental powers.
Positive Meaning: The Self; the individual or the human race. Your attitude toward others and their attitudes towards you. Friends and enemies, social order. Intelligence, forethought, creativity, skill, ability. Divine structure, intelligence, and awareness. Expect to receive some sort of aid or cooperation now.
Reversed or Merkstave: Depression, mortality, blindness, and self-delusion. Cunning, slyness, manipulation, craftiness, calculation. Expect no help now.


Letter value: l
Lore: Laguz is the rune of primal water. It can refer to things that flow like the rising and ebbing of tides. It is can also refer to the flow of human emotions, especially love. Water was associated with Vanir, a class of Germanic gods who were notable for their emotions as well as magick and psychic abilities, so those are also implied. It can also refer to the waters of the well of death and rebirth, so those themes are implied as well.
Magick: Lagaz is a rune of intuition and imagination. It is also a feminine rune, but unlike Beorc, it represents a strong and assertive female type. Use to contact your intuitive faculties, to increase the vitality and life force (especially for women, or to help gather in energies for use by the will.
Positive Meaning: Flow, water, sea, a fertility source, the healing power of renewal. Life energy and organic growth. Imagination and psychic matters. Dreams, fantasies, mysteries, the unknown, the hidden, the deep, the underworld. Success in travel or acquisition, but with the possibility of loss.
Reversed or Merkstave: An indication of a period of confusion in your life. You may be making wrong decisions and poor judgments. Lack of creativity and feelings of being in a rut. Fear, circular motion, avoidance, withering. Madness, obsession, despair, perversity, sickness, suicide.


Letter value: ng
Lore: Inguz is the counterpart of the Berkana, and represents what comes from the union of a male female, progeny. But it is not that simple for it represents that which has yet to be born. It represents gestation, development, conception, and expectations. The beginnings of the beginnings of something new is always implied here
Magick: Ing represents the male consort of the earth mother and as such is also a symbol of fertility. It is often used in the final position of the runescript to indicate a successful outcome. It is a very positive rune. Use for fertility, to release energy suddenly, to bring something to a satisfactory end, or to fix the outcome of your runescript so the benefits indicated therein do not drain away.
Positive Meaning: Male fertility, gestation, internal growth. Common virtues, common sense, simple strengths, family love, caring, human warmth, the home. Rest stage, a time of relief, of no anxiety. A time when all loose strings are tied and you are free to move in a new direction. Listen to yourself.
Merkstave (Ingwaz cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): Impotence, movement without change. Production, toil, labor, work.


Othila, Othel
Letter value: o
Lore: Othila at its simplest means homeland or family-land. To the ancient Germanic people, the home was perhaps the most important thing. Everything that was done by a person was for the greater good of their home and family. The animals they hunted, the grain they grew, the wars they fought were all done for greater good of the family and home. Without home and family, a person was nothing; life had no meaning. It should come as no surprise then as to why this rune is often times placed at the very end of the Futhark, for, according to the ancient Germanic people, all roads should lead to home. Further more, it allowed all the lessons learned before it to lead to home and family where it could be passed on to the next generation, who in turn would begin down the well-trodden path of the Futhark themselves. On another level of kenning Othila can refer to boundaries, like the kind that would have protected the estate of an ancient Germanic from the untamed dangers that would lie in the wilds beyond.
Magick: Othel signifies possessions or ancestral lands and characteristics. This rune encourages a down to earth attitude of life. When paired with Fehu, Othel is good for monetary gains. Use whenever the health of the elderly is the issue, or for protection of possessions.
Positive Meaning: Inherited property or possessions, a house, a home. What is truly important to one. Group order, group prosperity. Land of birth, spiritual heritage, experience and fundamental values. Aid in spiritual and physical journeys. Source of safety, increase and abundance.
Reversed or Merkstave: Lack of customary order, totalitarianism, slavery, poverty, and homelessness. Bad karma, prejudice, clannishness, provincialism. What a man is bound to.


Letter value: d
Lore: Most rune workers generally agree that Dagaz belongs at the end of the Futhark as its character fits more appropriately at the end based on the overall layout and symmetry of the entire Futhark. Dagaz can be considered the counter part of Jera, as they lay exactly opposite from each other on cycle of the Futhark, and both refer to elements of time. Whereas Jera referred to years, Dagaz refers to days. Where as Jera can mark midwinter and the return of the sun, Dagaz can hallmark midsummer when the sun is at its highest point and begins to recede. In Germanic mythology this could symbolize the death of the god Baldur, whose death is believed to mark beginning of the Ragnarok, the end of the world, as well as the end of the gods. Thus, Dagaz can mark momentous changes, like the ending of an era. Whereas Jera represent gentle changes, Dagaz represents major drastic and sudden changes. On another level of kenning, Dagaz can be much like the eastern concept of Yin and Yang where to opposing forces spin in a dance of harmony.
Magick: Daeg is the rune of the new day. It symbolizes the feelings embodied in the expression “today is the first day of the rest of your life.” It is particularly good for fresh starts in any endeavor. Use for financial increase, to change an attitude, or for new beginnings.
Positive Meaning: Breakthrough, awakening, awareness. Daylight clarity as opposed to nighttime uncertainty. A time to plan or embark upon an enterprise. The power of change directed by your own will, transformation. Hope/happiness, the ideal. Security and certainty. Growth and release. Balance point, the place where opposites meet.
Merkstave (Dagaz cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): A completion, ending, and limit, coming full circle. Blindness, hopelessness.

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