Protection and anti-theft
The bark, stripped of its outer layer, is astringent, balsamic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant and vulnerary.
Its main application is as an expectorant in chronic bronchitis and has also been given internally in the treatment of haemorrhage and cystitis.
A cold extract of the bark is used as a laxative.
As an external application, it is useful in the treatment of chronic eczema and psoriasis.
The powdered bark can be used on purulent and difficult wounds to promote their healing.
The turpentine obtained from the resin is antiseptic, balsamic, diuretic, haemostatic, rubefacient and vermifuge.
It is a valuable remedy in the treatment of kidney, bladder and rheumatic affections, and also in diseases of the mucous membranes and the treatment of respiratory complaints.
Other reports say that it is contraindicated for anyone with a kidney complaint.
Externally, the turpentine is used in the form of liniment plasters and inhalers.
It has also been suggested for combating poisoning by cyanide or opium.